Black currant Nezhdanchik: the main characteristics of the variety
Blackcurrant berries have a useful chemical composition and can be used to make juices, jams and desserts, and one of the newest types of this culture is the variety Nezhdanchik. The fruits have excellent taste and are well stored, without losing their presentation, and even a novice gardener can take care of plants. The description and main characteristics of the variety, its advantages and disadvantages, as well as the characteristics of the planting of young plants and the rules for caring for bushes, are further described in the article.
Description of black currant Nezhdanchik
The bushes of this variety in appearance do not differ much from plants of other varieties of blackcurrant. But they look beautiful on the site, so gardeners often form hedges from plants of this variety, which are a decorative decoration of any locality.
Did you know? Juice from ripe blackcurrant berries is used in the food industry for the production of natural dyes.
Description of black currant Nezhdanchik:
- The shrub has a high growth rate, but not too sprawling. Its maximum height is 1.5 m.
- The root system of plants is located near the surface of the soil and is sensitive to soil moisture.
- A dense crown of currant consists of thick and erect shoots, therefore it looks magnificent, but compact.
- Young branches have a green surface, but by the end of summer they are covered with a thin brown bark.
- The leaves of the plant are large and have a slightly wrinkled surface, and their outer side is painted in a dull dark green color.
- The crown of the bush exudes a characteristic tart aroma, which is felt at a distance of several meters.
- Currants bloom from late May to early June. At this time, small pinkish-gray or lilac flowers up to 1 cm long appear on the bushes. They are collected in drooping brushes of 5-10 pieces.
Black currant Nezhdanchik is one of the young varieties obtained by Russian breeders in 2015 as a result of crossing the Ojebin variety with an unknown crop variety. The employees of the Pavlovsk experimental station of the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Production named after N.I. Vavilova (St. Petersburg, Russia).
They wanted to get a high-yielding type of currant, characterized by high frost resistance and excellent commodity characteristics of berries. Despite the recent breeding period, the Nezhdanchik variety has already gained many positive reviews and is actively cultivated in Russia and Ukraine, as well as in Central Asia.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
When planting black currants, the gardener usually aims to annually receive a generous crop of large and tasty berries. The fruits of the Nezhdanchik variety meet all these requirements, and are also characterized by a high content of vitamins and nutrients.
Characteristics of berries and crop yields:
- The variety is mid-early. Harvest fruits can be harvested from late July to early August.
- Plants are self-fertile, therefore, do not need pollinators.
- Berries grow on a bush in clusters of medium size and are located tightly to each other.
- Large fruits have a rounded shape and a smooth, aligned surface. Outside they are covered with dense matte black skin.
- The weight of one berry is 2–2.5 g, and its diameter can reach 1 cm.
- The average yield from each bush is 4-5 kg. With good care, this figure increases to 6-7 kg.
- The dense pulp of the fruit has an excellent sweet taste with a pleasant acidity and rich aroma.Tasting assessment of the taste of currants of this variety is 4.8 points.
- Berries contain an average amount of seeds and keep their shape well during transportation.
Currant Nezhdanchik has a rich chemical composition.
Did you know? In Russia, currants began to be cultivated in gardens only in the 16th century. - before that, bushes were grown only on the territory of monasteries.
100 g of ripe berries contain such components useful for the human body:
- Vitamin C - 235 mg;
- potassium - 350 mg;
- calcium - 36 mg;
- magnesium - 31 mg;
- silicon - 61 mg;
- phosphorus - 33 mg;
- organic acids - 2.3 g;
- dietary fiber - 4.8 g;
- iron - 1.3 mg;
- sugar - 7.3 g;
- Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids - 0.18 g.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Black currant Nezhdanchik compares favorably with other varieties of this culture with many positive qualities.
- The main advantages of the variety are:
- high productivity;
- excellent commodity characteristics of berries;
- self-fertility of bushes;
- good keeping and transportability of fruits;
- relatively early harvest maturity;
- high winter hardiness of plants;
- unpretentiousness in leaving;
- useful composition and excellent taste of berries;
- stable immunity to diseases and pests;
- decorative appearance of plants;
- versatility of crop use.
- The few disadvantages of Nezhdanchik currants include:
- the need for additional watering during drought;
- tall bushes require a sufficient amount of free space;
- dense plant crown needs annual pruning.
The rules for growing Nezhdanchik currants are practically no different from caring for any other variety of this crop. Before planting seedlings, you need to choose a suitable place for them with optimal lighting and soil moisture. Planting material should be of high quality, and young bushes should be planted in the ground according to the standard algorithm, after preparing the soil in the selected area.
After rooting, plants need regular top dressing, watering and pruning, as well as a periodic inspection for the detection of diseases and pests. More details about the basic rules of agricultural technology - later in the article.
Seat selection and landing
Successful rooting of young seedlings of Nezhdanchik currant and further fruiting of the bushes largely depend on the site selected for cultivation and the correctness of the planting. Using the recommendations listed below, even a novice gardener can cope with this procedure.
A site for planting plants is selected according to the following criteria:
- location in the sun - bushes need light for normal growth and abundant fruiting, as well as for the sweet taste of berries;
- loose and light soil of a slightly alkaline reaction - it should pass air and moisture to the roots well;
- lack of groundwater at a depth of less than 1.5 m from the soil surface - the root system of plants does not respond well to moisture stagnation, starting to rot;
- protection from cold winds and drafts - currants growing on streams of cold air bear fruit worse and often get sick.
Soil preparation for planting currant seedlings should begin in 2-3 weeks.
Important! It is recommended to plant blackcurrant in open ground in early October or early spring before the onset of kidney swelling.
This process consists of the following actions:
- Cleanse selected area of debris and plant debris.
- Dig the ground to a depth of 50 cm to destroy the larvae of pests wintering in the soil.
- Dig out pits with a diameter of about 50 cm and a depth of up to 40 cm. The distance between the holes should be about 1.5 m.
- At the bottom of each depression lay a mixture of the upper fertile soil layer, 5 kg of compost, 2 tbsp. l double superphosphate and a large handful of ash. The landing pit should be 2⁄3 full.
- Leave the holes in such a state before planting, so that the earth has settled in them.
Step-by-step algorithm for planting blackcurrant:
- A few hours before planting, immerse the roots of the seedling in water, and before planting in the soil, dip them in a semi-liquid mixture of water and clay.
- Pour about 5 liters of warm water into the hole, wait until the liquid is completely absorbed into the ground.
- Place the root system of the young plant in the hole, placing the seedling at an angle of 45 ° to the soil surface. The root neck of the bush should be 5-6 cm below the surface of the soil.
- Spread the roots of the plant inside the planting pit. Sprinkle them with loose soil, ramming it with your hands around the bush to form a near-stem circle.
- Pour 5 l of warm water under each seedling. Wait until the liquid has completely absorbed.
- Mulch the earth around the bushes with humus or peat.
Currant Nezhdanchik unpretentious in care, but in order to receive an abundant crop of berries from the bushes every year, you need to provide them with sufficient moisture and fertilizer. In conditions of prolonged drought, the fruits lose their sweetness, and their size and quantity are reduced.
Important! Currants can suffer from late spring frosts, therefore, with a strong cooling during budding and flowering, the bush must be covered with plastic wrap or fumigated with a smoke bomb.
Basic rules for plant care:
- in the spring after pruning, you need to dig the soil around the bush to destroy the spores of the fungus and pest larvae located in it;
- during flowering and ripening of fruits, currants are abundantly watered, spending about 20-30 liters of water per 1 m²;
- during watering, it is recommended to pour water into small grooves dug at a distance of 35 cm from the base of the bush so that the liquid does not fall onto the leaves;
- after each irrigation, weeds are removed and surface loosening of the soil under the bushes is carried out - due to the dense earthen crust, air and water access to the currant roots is difficult;
- after watering and loosening, it is recommended to mulch the soil on the beds with humus - it is laid out at a distance of about 20 cm from the currant branches with a layer up to 10 cm thick;
- starting from the second year after planting, plants need fertilizing, which are introduced in spring and autumn;
- in April, before the sap flow begins, 45 g of urea is introduced under each young bush, and for adult plants this amount is reduced to 25–35 g, introducing it in 2 doses;
- in the autumn, once every 2 years, the currants are fertilized with organic - 10-15 kg of compost or bird droppings will be needed per plant;
- after harvesting, it is also recommended to feed the bushes with mineral fertilizers - 15 g of potassium sulfate and 50 g of superphosphate are used for each plant.
Pest and Disease Control
Nezhdanchik variety has a stable immunity to diseases and pests, but with serious errors in care can be affected by them. Therefore, the gardener needs to regularly inspect the bushes to determine the problem at an early stage and start treatment on time.
Did you know? Varieties of black, red and white currants are usually grown in orchards, but in nature there are other varieties of this crop with orange, green and purple berries.
Currants can be threatened by such diseases and pests:
- Anthracnose. The disease has a fungal nature and is manifested by reddish-brown spots on the leaves of the plant. Dark tubercles containing fungal spores are visible in the center of these spots. Affected leaves begin to turn yellow and fall off, so they must be removed immediately and burned.You can cure currants from anthracnose using a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid, spraying the bush after the first signs of the disease appear.
- Terry (reversion). The main causative agent of this dangerous disease is the kidney tick, and as a result of the lesion, the bush becomes infertile. Signs of terry are a change in the shape and size of the leaves of the plant, as well as staining of their surface in purple. In this case, the inflorescences of the bushes are deformed, and the ovaries are not formed. When the first signs of the disease appear, it is necessary to remove and destroy all affected leaves and flowers, and if the disease has spread to the entire plant, the bush is completely uprooted, since it is already impossible to cure it.
- Ball rust. This ailment can affect currants throughout the growing season, and its main symptom is small convex formations of orange on the surface of the leaves. Over time, they spread to the entire surface of the sheet plate, causing twisting and falling of the green mass. The diseased bush must be treated with Fitosporin, having previously removed all affected leaves from the plant.
- Fire. Pupae of this small butterfly winter in the upper layers of the soil, and insects that appeared in the spring lay eggs inside the inflorescences. A sign of the pest is a thin web on the surface of the plant, as well as small caterpillars that feed on the pulp of berries. It is impossible to save the crop on the affected bush, because the fruits become unusable. To prevent infection, it is necessary to cover the ground around the currant with a layer of roofing material before the flowering of the bush begins - in this case, the insects hatched from the pupae will not be able to get out of the soil and die.
- Gall leaf aphid. These small insects live on the leaves of a bush and suck out juices from them. In this case, large swollen spots painted in a reddish-yellow color appear on the surface of the sheet plate. As a result of the pest attack, the currant stops growing and loses its green mass, and the crop yield decreases. To destroy the pest, all affected leaves are removed, and the bush is treated with Karbofos.
- Kidney tick. The pest is small, so it is easily carried by the wind over long distances. It affects currants in early spring, penetrating into the kidneys. As a result of this, the latter become round and loose, the shoots stop growing, and the emerging leaves have an irregular shape. At the first sign of damage, all affected kidneys should be removed from the bush, and then the currant should be treated with acaricides (for example, Oberon).The currant bush affected by a currant kidney mite.
It is possible to prevent the infection of currants with diseases and pests with the help of simple preventive measures:
- Autumn digging of the area of the trunk circle;
- removal of weeds, plant debris and debris around the bushes;
- regular loosening and mulching of soil on the beds;
- compliance with watering and dressing schedules;
- the choice of a well-lit place for planting seedlings;
- regular pruning of the bush.
Trimming and shaping a bush
To give the plants a beautiful shape, as well as prevent the appearance of diseases and pests, the bushes of Nezhdanchik currant must be pruned annually.
Important! Cutting currants must be done with a sharp tool, and all places of the cuts must be treated with garden varieties to prevent infection.
The bush is trimmed in early spring and autumn, following these rules:
- immediately after planting, all branches of a young bush are shortened, leaving 2-3 buds on each of them;
- a year after planting a seedling, you need to remove all weak shoots, leaving up to 4 strong branches of zero order - they will form the skeleton of the crown;
- next year about 5 strong shoots of the first order are similarly left, and the excess young shoot is cut off;
- the left branches need to be shortened by 1⁄3 of the length in order to stimulate further branching of the bush;
- by the age of 4-5 years, the plant should consist of 15-20 main shoots - as they age, they are cut off at the base and gradually replaced with young branches;
- in early spring, dry and damaged shoots are removed on adult bushes, and extra young branches growing from the base are cut - they lead to excessive thickening of the crown;
- in mid-July, it is recommended to pinch all skeletal shoots into 2 buds to stimulate the growth of fruit branches and young growth at the base of the bush;
- in September, if necessary, thinning of the crown of currant is also carried out, cutting off young growth growing inside the plant.
The Nezhdanchik variety is winter-hardy - bushes can tolerate frosts up to –30 ° С. But in regions with colder winters, as well as in the absence of snow cover, plants will freeze without shelter, which will negatively affect crop productivity. Therefore, in the autumn, you need to properly prepare the bushes for the cold and, if necessary, build a protective cover for them.
Did you know? Blackcurrant leaves contain phenolic compounds that prevent spoilage of products, so they are often added to jars during the preparation of canned preparations for the winter.
To prepare currants for winter, you need to perform the following actions:
- with insufficient rainfall in the fall, water-charging irrigation of plants is carried out - the soil on the beds should get wet to a depth of about 50 cm;
- the base of the bush is sprinkled with earth, and a layer of peat or wood sawdust 10 cm thick is poured around the plant to protect the currant root system from frost;
- the area of the trunk circle is cleaned of debris and plant debris - pest larvae can winter in them;
- when growing varieties in regions with severe frosts below –30 ° C, the branches of the bush are bent to the ground and covered with spanbond - this procedure is performed only after constant cold weather without thaws;
- in spring, the shelter is removed immediately after the snow melts, so that the shoots do not stop.
Video: preparing currant bushes for winter
Harvesting and transportation of the crop, shelf life of berries
The dry separation is characteristic of the berries of Nezhdanchik, therefore they perfectly transfer transportation over long distances and are well stored. But during the collection of fruits, care must be taken so as not to damage the integrity of their peel, that is, in this case, the currant quickly loses juice and is suitable only for immediate processing.
Important! After harvesting, the currant bush should be abundantly watered and loosened the earth around it - this will help the plant regain strength.
The basic rules for harvesting and storage of crops are listed below:
- start harvesting after the berries have turned black;
- harvesting is recommended in dry weather in the early morning or evening;
- berries are removed from the bush not in clusters, but separately;
- currants are folded into small trays with a thin layer so that the fruits do not take under their own weight;
- for storage and transportation only whole berries with a hard surface are selected, and soft and damaged fruits are used for processing;
- harvested fresh currants can be stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of about 0 ° C for 10-14 days;
- for longer storage, the berries are placed in bags or plastic containers and placed in a freezer - at a temperature of –2 ° C and a humidity of 85%, the fruits can be stored for up to 1 year.