Blackberry: description and main characteristics of the plant
In the summer, during the berry season, sourish-tasting black blackberries begin to be sold on the country's markets in the berry season. It can be found in almost every forest, and some cultivate this plant in their personal plots. What is a blackberry and how to grow it properly - let's talk about it today.
Although the industrial production of blackberries is more common in America, its cultivation is gradually becoming more and more popular with us.
Which family belongs to
Blackberries are more than a dozen plant species, united in the genus Rubus (Rubus) and belonging to the family Rosacea (Rosáceae). It is grown in the United States, Mexico, distributed in the wild in Europe, the Middle East. In Ukraine it is called “burn”, in the Caucasus - “burn”; some species are known as “mildew” and “kumanika”.
Did you know? Blackberry is a relative of roses, almonds, mountain ash, bird cherry, and some fruit trees: their belong to one family of Rosaceae.
The main botanical characteristics of the plant: size, flowering, fruiting, seedlings and young shoots
The plant can be described as follows:
- Life form - shrub, can reach 2 m in height, 5 m in length.
- Bushes development cycle - two year old. In the first year, shoot growth and the laying of fruit buds take place, in the second - fruiting. A feature of the repairing varieties is fruiting on young shoots.
- The stem is greenmay be with a purple tint, there is no stiffness, most often covered with spikes.
- Shoots creeping or erect, grow greatly, in the wild can become impassable. Young growth is painted lighter.
- Green leavesconsist of 3, 5 or 7 leaves.
- Blooms in June with large flowersconsisting of several petals of white or pale pink color and surrounded by green sepals.
- Fruits are multi-shoots. - small drupes that are fused together. In common parlance, they are called berries. Painted in black, possibly with a purple tint, there are varieties of white, dark yellow, red. In the process of ripening, such stages of color pass: green, pink with a brown tint, brown, bright red, black. Varieties with white and dark yellow fruits are also bred. May be coated in blue-gray.
- Juicy fruit pulp, wine color, sweet and sour taste.
- Planting is carried out using annual seedlings with 2 stems 5 mm thick and a formed root bud.
- Propagated through seeds, cuttings, root processes.
Characteristics of blackberries
Indicators of nutritional value of 100 g of blackberry look like this:
- calorie content - 43 kcal;
- proteins - 1.4 g;
- fats - 0.5 g;
- carbohydrates - 4.3 g.
The chemical composition of blackberries (100 g) is given in the table:
|Vitamins:||Macro and microelements:|
|C, 21 mg||Potassium, 162 mg|
|K, 19.8 mcg||Magnesium, 20 mg|
|E, 1.17 mg||Calcium, 29 mg|
|PP, 646 mcg||Manganese, 646 mcg|
|B5, 276 mcg||Copper, 165 mcg|
The berry described is an important source of vitamins C and K, as well as manganese and copper. Another product contains vitamins B6, B2, B9, B1, B4, A, macrocells sodium and phosphorus, trace elements zinc, iron, selenium. Thanks to this, blackberries have many useful properties.
Types of Garden Blackberry
Garden blackberries can be divided into several groups:
- blue (gray).
Did you know? Blackberry juice is used to dye fabrics in purple - this paint is resistant to external influences.
Simple upright (Cumanica)
Cumanica is a species of Blackberry Ness, common in the forest zone of England, Scandinavia, Russia. Some varieties are cultivated - this includes varieties Agaveam, Apache, Black Satin, Gazda, Darrow, Kitanini, Larro, Lauton, Loch Ness, Ufa local, Wilsons Earley, Fantasy, Aronia, Eldorado, Erie.
Agaveam shrub is included in the State Register of Russia, it can be described as follows:
- Average growth, upright stalk, thick shoots, drooping tops.
- Refers to dessert varieties, the ripening period is early.
- The young shoots are brown, biennial brown.
- Covered with brown hard spikes with curved tips.
- The leaves are wrinkled, slightly twisted, consist of an odd number of leaves, fleecy, green, with denticles along the edges.
- Fruits multi-shoots oval in shape, weighing about 5 g, black, fragrant, sweet and sour taste. They grow on short stalks with small spikes. From 1 ha you can collect 99.8 centners of the crop.
- Frost resistance - up to –30 ° С for a short period of time. He does not tolerate heat well, tolerates drought in the middle.
- Affected by didimella, gray rot, suffering from weevils.
Creeping blackberry called dewdrop. Varieties of garden berries with curly stems include: Lucretia, Texas, Oregon Tornless, Tornless Logan, Tornless Evergreen, Izobilnaya, Columbia Star.
Consider the description on the example of the new Columbia Star variety:
- Shoots are strong, up to 5 m long, grow very much, require pinching, no thorns.
- Fruits in delicious fruits weighing about 15 g.
- The yield is 16,750 kg with 1 kg, the ripening period is early.
- Frost tolerance - up to –14 ° С, drought tolerance is good.
Stamp (blackberry tree)
Stamp varieties resemble wood, but they are not. These are upright varieties, when pruned, they remove biennial shoots, and one-year ones are shortened - for example, Polar, Natchez, Osage and others.
Important! In order not to break the bush of the Polar variety during shelter, this must be done in advance, until the stiffness of the shoots appears.
Variety Polar originally from Poland is characterized as follows:
- The bush is erect, high - up to 2.5 m.
- Shoots are fragile, without spikes.
- Fruits multi-stems with a mass of about 12 g, sweet.
- From 1 bush, you can collect up to 6 kg of the crop.
- Ripening start date is July.
- Frost resistance - up to –30 ° С, wintering without shelter is possible, however, warming can contribute to increased productivity.
In the repairing varieties, the fruits ripen both on young shoots and on the shoots of the second year of life. In contrast, the remaining varieties in 1 year do not bear fruit. This species includes: Prime-Arch Freedom, Prime-Arch 45, Prime-Arch Treveler, Black Magic, Ruben.
Prime Arc Freedom is a new variety that is described as follows:
- Upright bush of medium height up to 2 m.
- There are no thorns on the stems.
- Fruits in sweet large fruits weighing up to 20 g.
- The first crop is ready in the 20th of June, the second - at the end of August.
- Frost resistance is weak, suitable for cultivation in regions with a warm climate.
Some varieties of blackberries produce dark red berries (Boysen, Texas, Logan berry). A red tint was obtained by crossing with raspberries.
Boysen variety can be described as follows:
- Shoots up to 2.5 m long, grow greatly, studded with spikes.
- Frost resistance is weak.
- Not subject to rust.
- Fruits in mid-July, the mass of fruits is 8 g, they are tasty, dark red or red, glossy, there is a whitish pile.
Blue (bluish) blackberry
Consider a description of a blackberry blue, or gray:
- The life form is a bush, height - 0.5–1.5 m.
- Young sprouts have the shape of a cylinder, painted green with a yellow tint, covered with pile and spikes.
- The leaves are attached to the shoots with long (4–7 cm) petioles, studded with spikes - they consist of 3 leaves, their edges are serrated, the plates are fleecy, the color is light green.
- It blooms with large flowers of white color - the petals are wide, in the form of an ellipse, around the flowers are green fleecy sepals. Flowers form inflorescences.
- Fruits in juicy multi-shoots of black color with a gray-blue bloom - they are sour, their bones are large, oblate.
Of the cultivars, Darrow belongs to this species.
Black thorns without thorns have long been successfully grown in America - these are the varieties Loch Ness, Natchez, Owachita, Chester, Loch Tay, Black Satin, Columbia Star, Chachanska Bestrna, Agatovaya and others.
The Agate variety is included in the State Register and is described as follows:
- The ability to shoot is average. The bush is half-spread.
- Young shoots are red-violet, two-year-olds are brown with a purple hue, there are no thorns.
- The leaves are large, corrugated, slightly fleecy, dark green in color, their edges are serrated.
- Fruits weighing 4.8-6.3 g in the shape of a cone, tasty, sweet and sour, their color is black.
- Drought resistance is high, frost resistance is up to –24 ° С.
- From 1 ha, you can collect 20.9 c fruits.
- Resistance to diseases and pests is average.
Blackberry Care Guidelines
The planted plant in a sunny place - so that subsequently have access to it from all sides. Landing is best done in the spring. Good care is a prerequisite for a large crop.
To grow a blackberry, you need a rich in composition soil, loose, light - loam or sandy loam. Groundwater should pass at this level - no closer than 1.5 m to the surface. Preparation of soil for planting is carried out in the fall - they dig a hole, process it from pests.
Important! Do not plant blackberries in lime (carbonate) or saline soil.
Care: watering and top dressing
Immediately after planting, under each bush you need to pour 1-1.5 liters of water and sprinkle with mulch. Then young bushes are watered once a week for 2 months. If there is no rain in the summer, adult plants need to be watered. For irrigation use settled rainwater. In the first spring watering after removal of the shelter and in the last autumn watering before shelter, 4–5 buckets are poured under each bush.
For feeding before planting, the soil dug from the pit is mixed with compost or humus in the amount of 10 kg per 1 m², superphosphate and potassium chloride in the amount of 10-30 g per 1 m². In the future, 40 g of potassium, 20 g of nitrogen, 4 kg of compost or manure per 1 m² are added each spring. Once every 3 years make 50 g of superphosphate.
Blackberry garter and pruning
In order for the plant to gain access to fresh air and not suffer from strong winds, it needs to be tied up, for which these types of trellises are equipped:
- A wire stretched between the posts.
- Wire arches.
- Mesh along a house or fence.
- Garden furniture or terrace.
Two-year-old shoots are tied, and the young are simply guided along the wire. For upright varieties, pegs are installed. Upright blackberries need shaping pruning. To do this, when the height of the shoots reaches 1 m, cut off 10 cm, then annually cut the plant to a height of 2 m. For creeping varieties leave a length of 3 m. For each bush leave 8 shoots with a distance of 10 cm between them.
In the spring it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning - to remove dried, frozen and thickening branches. In autumn, two-year-old shoots should be cut, annuals should be slightly shortened, and damaged or diseased should be cut. To increase the yield on the shoots, pinch the tops.
Blackberry sprout on the plot
So that the bush does not grow over the entire area, it is recommended to dig slate or metal plates to the depth of the bed to a depth of 50 cm. So the rhizome will not creep and occupy a vast territory.
In the wild, blackberries can be found in almost every forest in different regions. These are prickly creeping shrubs with sweet and sour, sometimes acidic small berries, often spherical in shape.Wild berry is considered more useful, as it grows on naturally enriched forest soils. As for the chemical composition, there is no particular difference between it and the garden.
Some gardeners dig a bush from the forest and plant it at home, however, the care of such a planting will be complicated by the presence of thorns.
Thus, blackberries are a very healthy berry that can be found not only in the forest, but also in some gardens. The variety of its varieties is really amazing: you can meet the classic creeping, erect, non-bearing, with fruits of red, white or yellow, sweet or sour, frost-resistant and not very fruitful on the shoots of the second year of life or annually. If you decide to grow it on your site, do not forget to take measures from overgrowing, as this plant loves to capture large areas.