Almond cultivation in Moscow region: the best varieties for the region
Almonds are a light-loving and drought-tolerant plant, mainly grown in groups. More than 80% of finished products are supplied to the world market by the US state of California. Spain and Italy, Chile, Argentina and Australia also grow this tasty and healthy product. The largest buyers of nuts are China and India. Many gardeners acquire this culture in order to enjoy the beautiful spring flowering of the plant. Flowers cover not only the branches, but also the trunk of the tree, their aroma is very similar to the smell of roses. Almond lovers need to know how to plant and care for this plant in the Moscow Region.
Does almonds grow in the suburbs?
This thermophilic species easily tolerates moderately cold and snowy winters. Change of frosty weather to wet thaw adversely affects the tree, in particular, the root neck can begin to rot. This is especially dangerous in early spring, when the crop begins to bloom, and unexpected frosts can damage its growth. In this regard, when growing this beautiful plant, it is recommended to shelter it for the winter.
Did you know? Almonds are grown on a large scale for export. World production of almond kernels is 1.4 million tons. The volume of deliveries leading in the export of California is 1.1 million tons.
The best varieties for Moscow region
The climate of the Moscow region allows you to grow these varieties:
These varieties can freeze in winter, but their recovery is quite quick, and they bloom lushly.
Terry - a decorative form of a three-lobed species, which has another name - Louiseania. Dessert and Seaside varieties - varieties of sweet ordinary species. The dessert variety is resistant to frost, the fruits are oval in a soft shell. It is pollinated by the Primorsky variety, therefore, to get a crop, plant it nearby. A plant of the Primorsky variety blooms in April. The pollinator is Dessert. These varieties are self-sterile - to get the fruit, plant two plants close by.
Louiseania is a decorative bush, grows up to 3 m in height, has a spreading crown, large-toothed three-lobed leaves, flowers with a diameter of 1.5 cm, arranged in pairs. There are two decorative forms of Louisiana:
- Plena. It blooms in May for 14 days after the leaves have blossomed. The flowers are composed of 40 pink petals 4 cm in diameter.
- Kiev. Flowering is characterized by a large number of terry flowers of pink or dark pink hue, 3.5 cm in diameter. Each flower has 12 petals.
Louiseania has many hybrid forms that differ in different colors of flowers, flowering period.
Did you know? Spain is the leader in the production of almonds in Europe, as well as third in the world after the United States and Australia. Export proceeds from the sale of 50 thousand tons of this nut is 260 million euros.
Terry Luiseania (Amygdalus Plena) is a shrub that can reach a height of 2 m. The leaves are three-lobed, wide elliptic, their length is 6 cm. The variety blooms from April to May, for 3-5 weeks. The flowers are terry, bright pink, their diameter is 3 cm.
Terry terry looks very beautiful both in a single plant and in a group. It is used for landscaping rocky slides and edges
Bred in Crimea by crossing Nikitsky-62 and Nikitsky-1. Dessert lends itself to the formation of both shrubby and tree-like crowns. Drupe seeds are large, ripen in September.When a tree reaches nine years of age, its yield is up to 7.6 kg of dry kernels per season.
Around April, shrubs hide in a pink cloud of flowers. The height of the bushes reaches 5 m, the crown is rounded. The variety is frost-resistant, flower buds do not damage spring return frosts. Fruits are sweet, contain a lot of oil and trace elements.
Did you know? Traditional medicine uses almonds as a remedy for pain, cramps, coughing, and also to eliminate the symptoms of anemia, and even to treat insomnia.
Dessert variety is characterized by:
- persistent rest period;
- relatively late flowering;
- weak defeat by diseases and insects.
The cultivation took place on the Crimean peninsula by crossing two hybrids - Nikitsky-53 and Princess-2077. The variety is characterized by late flowering, a long period of dormancy. Trees are low with a spreading dense deciduous crown, grow up to 3.5 m, resistant to fungi. Large round drupes ripen in September, 2-6 pcs. in a whole soft shell. From one tree harvest up to 15 kg. The leaves are oblong, large, their color is dark green.
In the Moscow Region, decorative forms of Luisania are planted in open ground, as well as an ordinary species, the fruits of which are edible and very sweet, contain a lot of fats and proteins. Almond flowers are pollinated in a cross way, so experienced gardeners plant seedlings of different varieties nearby.
Important! Bees pollinate almonds - it’s good if there is an apiary or several hives nearby.
Favorable periods for planting annual seedlings in the soil are the beginning of March and November. A seedling planted in the autumn month is more likely to take root. Sunny areas are suitable for almond plants, you can also choose a place in partial shade. It is necessary to provide protection for seedlings from possible drafts and strong winds. Louiseania grows well in the south side of the garden.
In order for the selected variety to take root, please with a good harvest, it is necessary to choose a place with suitable soil. In the Moscow region, sandy or loamy soil, water and breathable chernozem are suitable for seedlings. Well, if the soil contains a lot of lime, its acceptable pH is 5.0–7.7. Avoid acidic soil. Places where groundwater lies high are also considered unsuitable. If you plant a seedling on excessively clay soil, it will grow poorly and produce a small crop.
Did you know? In Holland and Belgium on St. Nicholas Day, children receive marzipan fruits as a gift, and adults are given the initials of their names, carved from almond cookies — "Almond letters." Culinary experts make masterpieces from the almond dough: marzipan castles with fairy-tale characters.
If you have decided on the place where you will plant the seedlings, then 12-14 days before the proposed planting should dig holes. Their diameter should be 0.5 m, depth - 0.6 m, the distance between the pits in the row - 4 m, and the row spacing - 6 m. Prepared recesses are covered with crushed stone and sand drainage. Next, you need to prepare fertile soil. To do this, combine 1 part of sand, 2 parts of humus and 3 parts of leafy soil.
Video: Planting Almond Seedlings
Next, combine the prepared soil mixture with compost weighing 5 kg, and add 500 g of superphosphate. To deoxidize the soil, add 0.2 kg of dolomite flour. Pour the mixture into the recesses.
Did you know? The peel of almonds contains ten times more antioxidants than the kernels themselves. The peel is also used as a dye in the manufacture of wine and brandy.
After 14 days, the soil will have time to settle, and then plant seedlings according to this instruction:
- In the middle of the recess, stick a support - a pole, rising about 50 cm above the ground level.
- Sprinkle a hill of earth in the middle of the recess.
- Immerse the roots in the hole and place the tree so that the root neck is above ground level.
- Fill the recess with a fertile substrate, tamp the ground and pour 10 liters of water.
- Wait until the water goes into the ground.
- Lock the seedling to the support.
- Mulch the soil near the trunk with peat or dry soil, a five-centimeter layer. The root neck should not touch the mulch.
If you plan to plant a seedling in spring, prepare a well before the frost, laying drainage in it, fertile soil with fertilizers. In March, before the sap flow begins, a seedling is planted in the same way as in autumn.
Subtleties of care and ripening
Growing an almond plant, you need to take care of timely care, which includes:
- loosening the soil;
- pest control.
Video: Almond Care in the Garden
Carry out timely and correct pruning of almond tree throughout the year:
- After the end of winter, in the early spring, until the sap flow begins, and the buds have not yet blossomed, sanitary cutting of trees and almond bushes is performed, shortening the frozen growths, and removing dry or deformed branches.
- After flowering is completed, forming pruning is done - the seedling usually has three branches located one from another at a distance of 0.2 m - they need to be shortened to 0.2 m. By shortening faded growths by 70% of their length, you stimulate flowering for the coming year.
- Several times during the summer, the extra growth is pinched, and the necessary ones are shortened in July, when their length is half a meter.
- In the fall, after all the leaves have circled, another sanitary pruning is performed.
On fruitful trees, only fat growths are cut into a ring, and damaged ones shorten up to 4 eyes. Only branches that thicken the crown should be removed.
Almond crown is formed by three levels of skeletal branches.. After rooting, the seedling should be trimmed so that its height is 1.2 m. The height of the young seedling stem should be 0.5–0.7 m. Over the next 2-3 years, new levels of skeletal branches should form on the main conductor. To complete the formation of the crown, cut the main conductor so that the last skeletal branch is half a meter below the conductor.
Video: how to form a tree from almond shrub
In the spring, before the sap flow begins, old branches are cut off at seven-year-old bushes, they will be replaced by root processes that appear after three years of life of the ornamental bush.
Important! If you sawed off a powerful branch, do not forget to process the cut with a garden var. If you did not perform sanitary pruning before the onset of frost, then it is better to transfer it already in early spring.
The crop tolerates drought sustainably, but it will grow and bear fruit better with proper irrigation. When the bush blooms, it is necessary to water it abundantly. When the soil dries near the trunk to a depth of 1.5 cm, the plant should be watered with 10 liters of water. Watered at least once a week, one and a half, and in extreme heat more often. Avoid waterlogging so that the root collar does not rot.
After moistening the soil, it lends itself well to loosening, so loosen near the seedlings 5 cm deep and around adult specimens - 10 cm. It is important to remove weeds near the trunk. It is recommended to loosen the soil monthly. This improves the access of oxygen and water to the root system and makes it possible to better absorb the nutrition. Gardeners mulch the soil around the trunk to retain moisture.
Fertilizer selection and top dressing
Throughout the year, gardeners are engaged in fertilizing. It is necessary:
- in spring mulch the circle near the trunk with manure or chicken droppings;
- before flowering pour the soil with a solution prepared from ammonium nitrate - 20 g, urea - 10 g, and water - 10 l;
- in the fall fertilize the circle near the trunk with double superphosphate and potassium sulfate, based on the calculation: 20 g of each product per 1 m² of soil.
Siderata is sown between seedlings for the first seven years.
How to prepare a plant for winter?
Prepare a heat-loving culture for the winter, starting in the summertime. In September, when the crop is harvested, pinch the tops of the stems. Before frost, the tree intensely grows wood fibers in order to better withstand the cold.
Seedlings are covered with dry leaves or lutrasil to a height of 15 cm. In this case, the root neck is left open. Adult trees need not be insulated for winter. If the branches freeze, the shrub will recover very quickly in the spring. The young shoots of the crown of the standard plants are collected in a bunch, wrapped with felt to protect the flower buds.
Did you know? Almonds contain 67% fat, 30% protein, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin E and B vitamins. The amount of protein in the almond kernels is equal to its content in lean meat, while they are completely absorbed by the human body.
Pests and diseases
Growing almonds, gardeners carry out preventive spraying to prevent the spread of insects and diseases that are harmful. To do this, they use a one percent Bordeaux mixture, which is sprayed on the garden in the spring, before the buds open, and also after all the leaves have fallen off.
In case of violation of agricultural techniques for growing almonds, or when the plant weakens due to the lack of proper and timely care, it becomes vulnerable to diseases. For beginning gardeners, it is important to become more familiar with diseases that often affect the almonds:
- Cercosporosis is a fungal disease, in June they affect the leaves, then the disease spreads to young shoots. The first symptoms are rounded red-brown spots of 2–4 mm in size on the leaves. After some time, holes appear instead of spots. The plant begins to grow leaf tissue instead of fully developing the fruits. When revealing the first signs of a fungus, gardeners spray almonds with fungicides.
- Fungus scab Almond leaves, flowers and growths are affected. Gardeners choose a seedling that is resistant to this disease. The use of fungicides gives a good effect in the fight against scab. Effective methods are also: digging the area when all the leaves have fallen, spraying in spring and autumn with Bordeaux fluid, pruning and destruction of diseased branches.
- Symptoms rust there are small red spots on the front side of the leaf, and brown pads appear on the back of the leaves. As the disease progresses, the spots spread, as a result, the leaves dry out, and premature leaf fall begins. Gardeners struggle with signs of rust by spraying with a suspension of sulfur. To prevent the disease, it is necessary to remove the area from the leaves before the onset of winter and dig the soil.
- The bush becomes vulnerable to moniliosisif it is grown in adverse conditions and not enough care for the plant. The causative agent of moniliosis falls through the pistils of flowers, affecting young growths and flowers. As a preventive measure, before blooming, when the temperature still does not exceed + 10 ° С, the buds of the bush are sprayed with the fungicide “Chorus”. If there are symptoms of a monilial burn in the form of withered leaves on some branches, these branches must be cut into a ring. It is important to sterilize the pruner before pruning and after touching infected branches. After the bush has flowered, it is necessary to treat it with the drug “Skor”.
- When warm rainy weather develops rapidly kleasterosporiosis, also known as perforated spotting. Many stone plants are affected by it. The disease damages leaves, flowers, growths and drupes.Small spots with a red-brown or red-violet hue grow, and holes form in their place. The disease differs from other similar ones with a dark border around the spot. A severe lesion is manifested by the appearance of gum from the cortex of diseased growths. Gardeners cultivate the culture with the means: Chorus, Skor, Kuproksat, Vectra, Topaz. Spraying is carried out three times: at the beginning of flowering, after the bush has flowered, two weeks after the second spraying.
- Symptoms gray rot, also known as botritis, are brown spots growing on leaves and growths. At high humidity, the bush is covered with a gray coating, which is a mushroom spore. The wind carries spores, and the disease spreads to nearby trees. With this type of fungus fungicides help to fight: “Champion”, “Topaz”, “Oksikhom”, “Kuproksat”.
Protecting seedlings from gray rot, gardeners try to place them loosely on the plot and not spray them with concentrated nitrogen substances. Symptoms of the fungus indicate the need to cut off infected branches before the appearance of spore-bearing pads, then spray the planting with the above fungicide.
Often, the affected areas are coated with a solution that is prepared using:
- water - 10 l;
- fungicide "Rovral" - 40 g;
- KMC glue - 400 g.
Important! Eating almonds in some people can cause allergies. The danger is unripe, spoiled, expired nuts - they may contain cyanide, which causes poisoning.
Among tree pests, the following are known:
- Old bushes may be infected with plum sapwood bark beetle, which damages the bark, making it vulnerable to the penetration of fungi. To destroy bark beetles, the trunk is coated with a mixture of clay and lime.
- By removing damaged fruits under the tree before the onset of frost, you thereby destroy seed eatersthat winter in such fruits. In order to prevent from possible infection of the fruit with seed eaters in the early spring, after flowering, and also in autumn, gardeners spray trees with 1% Bordeaux fluid.
- Caterpillars they eat leaves that curl from this. For preventive purposes, gardeners cut and destroy masonry leaflets and folded leaves. In the spring, at a temperature of no higher than + 4 ° C, it is recommended to treat the trees with a Bordeaux mixture or with Profilactin, dissolving 0.5 l of the substance in 10 l of water. If the caterpillars managed to breed, then the bush should be treated with one of the insecticides: Fufanon, Actellik, Zolon, Calypso, Tagore, Ditox.
- Aphid It feeds on the juice of leaf cells and growth, transferring viruses. As a preventative measure, sow dill and fennel near them - they attract germs that eat aphids. Among the well-known folk remedies for killing aphids, the use of a solution using household soap, infusions of wormwood, tansy, tobacco dust, bitter pepper, garlic, onions, dandelion, tops of tomatoes or potatoes is effective. For 100% effectiveness, the infusion is used 3-4 times. Effective insecticides in the fight against aphids are Biotlin, as well as Antitlin.
- Spider mite multiplies rapidly in extreme heat. His offspring dwells in a web woven by ticks. Spider mites feed on juice from young growth cells. The plant becomes vulnerable to any disease due to the aggressive behavior of ticks that live on the web. In addition, spider mites carry some plant diseases. Acaricides, for example, Apollo, Omayt, Flumayt, as well as insectoacaricides, including Agravertin, Akarin, Kleschevit, Fitoverm, are used to kill ticks.
Collection and storage of fruits
After the flowering of the tree, fruit formation takes place in July-August. Their begin to collect when the outer shell of the fetus is darkened and cracked. Then they are cleansed - the peel is removed. Then, laid out in a single layer, dried for several days. Store the finished fruit in fabric bags.
Did you know? The high value of peanut butter is that it helps to cure lung inflammation, asthma, stomatitis, heart diseases, eliminates skin irritations, strengthens hair, stimulates their growth, and gives them shine. Oil is used as the basis for creams, as it, when absorbed, helps restore skin cells.
Carefully monitor the humidity of the fruits and the kernel, which should not exceed 10%. If the humidity is higher, it is necessary to quickly clean the fruits and dry them to avoid troubles in the form of mold and rot.. It is forbidden to store half-baked fruits in piles and piles for more than one day.
Different varieties of almonds are collected in separate containers in order to prevent their mixing, because these are unnecessary labor for cleaning and sorting
Young almond trees 1.5–2 m high allow you to cut pericarp manually, without a stepladder. To collect fruits on taller trees, for example, from 2 to 3.5 m high, they are shaken, having spread a cloth or a film under the trees in advance.
Important! The quality of the finished almond kernels must comply with established state standards. Purchase prices are set for sweet almonds with a moisture content of 10%.
Almonds are used for landscaping and decorating parks, city boulevards, suburban areas. Nuts are used as a medicine and an additional source of vegetable fats and proteins. Proper and timely care will allow you to get valuable fruits of this tree, as well as decorate your garden with decorative bushes.